Museums & Historic Sites Share American Indian Cultures
By Lisa Meyers McClintick
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Ojibwe (or Anishinaabe) and Dakota (Lakota) heritage figure strongly in Minnesota’s past and its present. Here are some of the best places to admire tribal artistry, learn about their histories, and appreciate their cultures through storytelling and music.
The name Minnesota comes from the Dakota (Sioux) words mnisota meaning "sky-tinted waters" or "sky-blue waters." There are numerous Indian origin place names throughout the state, many beginning with mni or minne meaning water. For example, Minneapolis is a hybrid of minne and "polis", the Greek word for city, i.e. city of water or "City of Lakes."
Dakota and Ojibwe languages, family, political structure and spirituality arose from and were shaped by the landscape. In Minnesota, there are seven Anishinaabe (Chippewa or Ojibwe) reservations and four Dakota (Sioux) communities. A reservation or community is a segment of land that belongs to one or more groups of American Indians. It is not land that was given to Native Americans by the federal government. It is land that was retained by Native American tribes after ceding large portions of the original homelands to the United States through treaty agreements.
Here are some of Minnesota's best sites to admire tribal artistry, history and culture.
Mille Lacs Indian Museum, North of Onamia
An Ojibwe woman weaving an intricate basket from sweet grass grabs the attention of older visitors, but kids feel tugged forward into the Mille Lacs Indian Museum by the spiritual drumming, distinctive singing and colorful powwow dances. They can toggle between videos that show women’s gentle shawl dances and upbeat jingle dress dances and men’s kinetic dances that may draw inspiration from animals and birds.
This lakeshore museum tells the story of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe, arriving in northern Minnesota after being pushed from the East. A room with dioramas shows how they followed a rhythm of four seasons harvesting maple syrup, fishing, gathering berries, drying wild rice, trapping and hunting. Besides seeing the indoor demonstrations and partaking in classes on weaving, beading and traditional cooking, visitors should also look for seasonal programs on maple syruping, ricing, traditional dances, and building canoes or tipis.
The museum, along with its trading post and extensive book store, can be especially busy in mid-August during the annual powwow. The event, which takes place at the powwow grounds on the Lake Mille Lacs shore two miles north of the museum, has been a tradition since the 1950s.
Bois Forte Heritage Museum, Near Tower
Tucked behind the Fortune Bay Resort and Casino, this gem of a museum tells how the Bois Forte Ojibwe were told to wander west until they reached the “lakes with food,” shallow-shored lakes rich with wild rice. The exhibits include a sobering section on Indian boarding schools, an area that pays tribute to the tribe’s many veterans, and a replica of an early birchbark-covered dwelling.
Pipestone National Monument, Pipestone
Minnesota's recorded history begins at Jeffers Petroglyphs Historic Site in the southwest corner of the state where Native Americans for thousands of years have traced life stories in rock carvings. Near Jeffers Petroglyphs is the "Crossroads of the Indian World," at The Great Pipestone Quarries, now the Pipestone National Monument.
The Pipestone quarries of Minnesota have been a sacred site for Native American tribal people for over 1,000 years. Many nations of Indian people came to these quarries as the pipestone was a very precious trade item throughout the Tribal Nations - from Hudson Bay, Canada to the Anazazi and Aztec of Mexico. As a result, the Pipestone region became the major crossroads for trade in the Americas. Today, pipestone articles are sold by the Pipestone Indian Shrine Association, which runs the gift shop at the Monument, and The Keepers of the Sacred Tradition of Pipemakers in the town of Pipestone. Both are owned and operated by Native Americans.
Tucked among the rolling prairie landscape, reddish pink pipestone (or catlinite) can still be found and hand-quarried following Plains Indian traditions for more than 2,000 years. Soft enough to skillfully carve into animals and people, the prized pipestone became one of the most cherished and sacred possessions of the Plains Indians.
Carvers may still be seen carefully sculpting and sanding the rock at the Pipestone National Monument visitor center, which includes exhibits on pipestone history and the efforts to protect this sacred site. A scenic walking trail includes a look at prairie, small quarries and the beautiful Winnewissa Falls.
Grand Portage National Monument, Grand Portage
The Grand Portage National Monument along Lake Superior focuses on the North West Fur Company, which relied in part on Ojibwe Indians to help keep the early 1800s North American fur trade booming. European traders offered everything from cast iron cookware, knives, beads and blankets in exchange for furs, maple sugar and wild rice from Native Americans.
The large complex of buildings originally built by the British Northwest Company in the late 1700s was reconstructed to allow celebration of the fur trade and Ojibwe way of life. The portage trail itself has also been separately designated a Minnesota State Historic Site. As early as 2,000 years ago, Native Americans used Gichi-onigaming, or "the great carrying place," to travel from summer homes on Lake Superior to winter hunting grounds in the interior of Minnesota and Ontario. The Grand Portage trail is an 8.5-mile (13.7 km) portage around the High Falls on the Pigeon River which forms the border between Minnesota and Ontario, Canada. Voyageurs from the interior of Canada would carry their furs by canoe down river to Grand Portage.
The visitor center uses new technology such as projecting digital images into a tipi and encouraging families to make virtual trades to help them survive the winter. Costumed interpreters at the historic fort explain life in the fur era, which was always liveliest during the annual North West Company Rendezvous. Re-enactors continue this event the second full weekend in August in conjunction with the Rendezvous Days Powwow, sponsored by the Grand Portage Reservation.
Nearby, petroglyphs can be found in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness of northern Minnesota. Within the Boundary Waters are hundreds of these petroglyphs and pictographs on rock ledges and cliffs. The area is part of the historic homeland of the Ojibwe people, who traveled the waterways in birch bark canoes. Prior to Ojibwe settlement, the area was sparsely populated by the Dakota who dispersed westward and southward following the arrival of the Ojibwe.
Minnesota River Valley
The 1851 Traverse des Sioux Treaty opened up close to 24 million acres of the Minnesota territory to European settlement and marked the end of an era for Minnesota’s Dakota tribes that had followed bison across the Great Plains. Restricted to reservation lands but guaranteed payments, the Dakota were starving a decade later when Civil War gripped America and payments weren’t delivered as promised. Frustrations exploded into violence and the short, but deadly, U.S. Dakota War in 1862.
Powwows have long been held to celebrate a successful hunt and to thank the spirits for a bountiful harvest. Powwows also spiritually prepared a warrior for an impending battle. Today, the powwow tradition has become a multi-tribal social event open to the public. Some powwows provide educational lessons of the Native American culture, with traditional dances and various religious ceremony re-enactments. Native American arts and crafts, as well as food and other wares are often for sale.
In 1987 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of tribes as sovereign nations to conduct gaming on Indian lands free of state control. Minnesota tribes were the first in the nation to negotiate and sign gaming compacts with a state government. After nearly twenty years of Native American gaming, much progress has been made in Native American communities. Gaming revenues have helped Minnesota tribes fill the gaps left by chronically inadequate federal funding for health care, housing, education, human services and infrastructure needs. The casinos are central to Minnesota tourism and essential to Native American community revenue.
Lisa Meyers McClintick is a prolific travel writer for outlets including USA Today, Midwest Living, the Star Tribune and her website lisamcclintick.com. A mom of three, she especially enjoys family travel, hands-on learning vacations, local food and farms, living history and outdoor adventures.
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